The profound impact of the human microbiome on health and disease has captivated the interest of clinical and scientific communities. The human body hosts a vast array of microorganisms collectively forming the human microbiome, which significantly influences various physiological processes and profoundly shapes overall well-being. Notably, the gut stands out as an exceptional reservoir, harboring the most significant concentration of microorganisms, akin to an organ in itself. The gut microbiome's composition and function are influenced by genetics, environment, age, underlying conditions, and antibiotic usage, leading to dysbiosis and pathogenesis, such as Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Conventional CDI treatment, involving antibiotics like oral vancomycin and fidaxomicin, fails to address dysbiosis and may further disrupt gut microbial communities. Consequently, emerging therapeutic strategies are focused on targeting dysbiosis and restoring gut microbiota to advance CDI therapeutics. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in treating recurrent CDI by transferring processed stool from a healthy donor to a recipient, restoring gut dysbiosis and enhancing bacterial diversity. Moreover, 2 newer Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved live biotherapeutic products (LBP), namely, Fecal Microbiota Live-JSLM and Fecal Microbiota Spores Live-BRPK, have shown promise in preventing CDI recurrence. This review explores the role of the gut microbiota in preventing and treating CDI, with an emphasis on gut-based interventions like FMT and fecal microbiota-based products that hold potential for gut restoration and prevention of CDI recurrence. Understanding the microbiome's impact on CDI prevention and treatment offers valuable insights for advancing future CDI therapeutics.
Keywords: FMT; dysbiosis; live biotherapeutic products; microbiome; probiotics.
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America 2023.