Posttransplant complications in patients with marrow failure syndromes: are we improving long-term outcomes?

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2023 Dec 8;2023(1):141-148. doi: 10.1182/hematology.2023000471.


Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) encompass a group of rare genetic disorders characterized by bone marrow failure, non-hematologic multisystemic comorbidities, disease defining congenital anomalies, and a susceptibility to myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, and in some instances solid tumors. The most common IBMFS include Fanconi anemia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and telomere biology disorders/ dyskeratosis congenita. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) is a well-established curative treatment to correct the hematological manifestations but does not halt or reverse the nonhematological complications and may hasten them. With advances in HCT and in our ability to care for patients with IBMFS, an increasing number of survivors are making it imperative to not only diagnose but also treat late effects from the pre-, peri-, and post-HCT course and complications relating to the natural history of the syndrome. As the field of HCT evolves to allow for the incorporation of alternate graft sources, for expansion of donor options to include unrelated and mismatched donors, and for use of reduced-intensity conditioning or reduced toxicity myeloablative regimens, we have yet to determine if these advances modify the disease-specific course. While long-term outcomes of these patients are often included under one umbrella, this article seeks to address disease-specific post-HCT outcomes within IBMFS.

MeSH terms

  • Anemia, Aplastic* / genetics
  • Bone Marrow / pathology
  • Bone Marrow Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Bone Marrow Diseases* / therapy
  • Congenital Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes / complications
  • Disease Progression
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal* / diagnosis
  • Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal* / therapy
  • Humans