Atypical CML: diagnosis and treatment

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2023 Dec 8;2023(1):476-482. doi: 10.1182/hematology.2023000448.


Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) is included in the group of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms by the International Consensus Classification and has been renamed as MDS/MPN with neutrophilia by the fifth edition of World Health Organization classification. It is always characterized by morphologic identification of granulocytic dysplasia with >10% circulating immature myeloid cells, 2 distinguished features that differentiate this disease among the others. Somatic mutations may help to diagnose but are not specifically pathognomonic of the disease, with the most detected including ASXL1, SETBP1, NRAS, KRAS, SRSF2, and TET2 and with low-frequency CBL, CSF3R, JAK2, and ETNK1. The genomic landscape of aCML has been recently unravelling, revealing that SETBP1 and ETNK1 are usually not ancestral but secondary events associated with disease progression. Unfortunately, until now, no consensus on risk stratification and treatment has been developed: Mayo Clinic prognostic score identified as adverse events age >67 years, hemoglobin level <10 g/dL, and TET2 mutations. Although some possible genetic markers have been identified, allogeneic transplant remains the only curative strategy.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative* / diagnosis
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative* / genetics
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative* / therapy
  • Mutation
  • Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Prognosis