Oral Pyogenic Granuloma: A Narrative Review

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Nov 28;24(23):16885. doi: 10.3390/ijms242316885.


Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign vascular lesion found predominantly in the oral cavity. Characterized by rapid growth and propensity to bleed, PG presents diagnostic challenges due to its similarity and alarming proliferation. This narrative review synthesizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management of oral PG, with emphasis on recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The epidemiology of the injury is meticulously analyzed, revealing a higher incidence in women and a wide range of ages of onset. It delves into the etiopathogenesis, highlighting the uncertainty surrounding the exact causal factors, although historical attributions suggest an infectious origin. It exhaustively analyzes the clinical and histopathological aspects of oral PG, offering information on its various presentations and the importance of an accurate diagnosis to guide effective treatment. It details treatment strategies, emphasizing the personalized approach based on individual patient characteristics. This comprehensive review consolidates current knowledge on oral PG, highlighting the need for further research to clarify its pathogenesis and optimize treatment protocols.

Keywords: hyperplastic lesion; lobulated capillary hemangioma; pyogenic granuloma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Granuloma, Pyogenic* / diagnosis
  • Granuloma, Pyogenic* / epidemiology
  • Granuloma, Pyogenic* / etiology
  • Humans
  • Mouth / pathology
  • Mouth Mucosa / pathology

Grants and funding

This research did not receive external funding.