First case of dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancy after single blastocyst transfer

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2024 Feb;41(2):437-440. doi: 10.1007/s10815-023-02989-4. Epub 2023 Dec 11.

Abstract

Multiple pregnancies are associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal risks, including prematurity, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia, anemia, postpartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth restriction, neonatal morbidity, and increased neonatal and infant mortality rates. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments should prioritize efforts to reduce such events, resisting patient demand for the transfer of multiple embryos at each transfer to increase success rates. Extended culture, embryo selection, and single blastocyst transfer can mitigate the risk of high-order multiple pregnancies. Intriguingly, elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the likelihood of multiple gestations. The occurrence of monozygotic twinning (MZT) gives rise to identical twins. It is more prevalent in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) compared with natural conception. In fact, the reported risks of monozygotic twinning in IVF and natural conception are 1.7 and 0.4%, respectively. The factors suspected to increase the risk of MZT in IVF are multiple embryo transfer, micromanipulation, and extended in vitro culture. Determining chorionicity and amnionicity is crucial in the assessment of multiple pregnancies during the first-trimester ultrasound examination. Dichorionic twins result from embryo splitting within 3 days after fertilization, while monochorionic twins occur when the splitting takes place between 4 and 8 days after fertilization. These timings are suggested by observations carried out in natural pregnancies. In ART, there is evidence of dichorionic twins derived from single embryo transfer (SET). Here, we report a case of dichorionic diamniotic triplets after a single blastocyst transfer occurred in our center. To our knowledge, this is the first case documented so far.

Keywords: Diamniotic; Dichorionic; IVF; Monozygotic twins; Monozygotic twins hereditary; Multiple pregnancies; Triplets.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Blastocyst
  • Embryo Transfer
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy, Triplet*
  • Pregnancy, Twin
  • Twinning, Monozygotic / genetics
  • Twins, Monozygotic / genetics