Trabecular bone score as a marker of skeletal fragility across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2023 Dec 11:dgad724. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgad724. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Context: The impairment of bone microarchitecture is a key determinant of skeletal fragility in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Trabecular bone score (TBS) has been developed as a reliable non-invasive index of bone quality. However, its utility in this setting is still debated.

Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the available evidence about TBS as a marker of skeletal fragility across the spectrum of CKD.

Methods: PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched until July 2023 for studies reporting data about TBS in patients with CKD. Effect sizes were pooled through a random-effect model.

Results: Compared to controls, lower TBS values were observed in CKD patients not on dialysis (-0.057, 95%CI:[-0.090, -0.024], p < 0.01), in dialysis patients (-0.106, 95%CI:[-0.141, -0.070], p < 0.01) and in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) (-0.058, 95%CI:[-0.103, -0.012], p = 0.01). With respect to fracture risk, TBS was able to predict incident fractures in non-dialysis patients at unadjusted analyses (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation decrease: 1.45, 95%CI:[1.05,2.00], p = 0.02), though only a non-significant trend was maintained when fully adjusting the model for FRAX® (HR = 1.26, 95%CI:[0.88,1.80], p = 0.21). Dialysis patients with prevalent fractures had lower TBS values compared to unfractured ones (-0.070, 95% CI:[-0.111, -0.028], p < 0.01). Some studies supported a correlation between TBS and fracture risk in KTRs, but results could not be pooled due to the lack of sufficient data.

Conclusions: CKD patients are characterized by an impairment of bone microarchitecture, as demonstrated by lower TBS values, across the whole spectrum of kidney disease. TBS can also be helpful in the discrimination of fracture risk, with lower values being correlated with a higher risk of prevalent and incident fractures.

Keywords: CKD-MBD; bone fragility; chronic kidney disease; dialysis; fractures; kidney transplant; renal osteodystrophy; trabecular bone score.