COVID-19 disease among children and young adults enrolled in the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies registry

Pediatr Nephrol. 2024 May;39(5):1459-1468. doi: 10.1007/s00467-023-06241-0. Epub 2023 Dec 11.


Background: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected adults with kidney disease. Data regarding outcomes among children with kidney disease are limited. The North American Pediatric Renal Trials Collaborative Studies Registry (NAPRTCS) has followed children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) since 1987 at 87 participating centers. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 among participants enrolled in the three arms of the registry: CKD, dialysis, and transplant.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 among participants in the NAPRTCS CKD, dialysis, and transplant registries from 2020 to 2022. Where appropriate, t-tests, chi-square analyses, and univariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the data.

Results: The cohort included 1505 NAPRTCS participants with recent data entry; 260 (17%) had documented COVID-19. Infections occurred in all three registry arms, namely, 10% (n = 29) in CKD, 11% (n = 67) in dialysis, and 26% (n = 164) in transplant. The majority of participants (75%) were symptomatic. Hospitalizations occurred in 17% (n = 5) of participants with CKD, 27% (n = 18) maintenance dialysis participants, and 26% (n = 43) of transplant participants. Fourteen percent (n = 4) of CKD participants and 10% (n = 17) of transplant participants developed acute kidney injury (AKI), and a total of eight participants (one CKD, seven transplant) required dialysis initiation. Among transplant participants with moderate to severe illness, 40-43% developed AKI and 29-40% required acute dialysis. There were no reported deaths.

Conclusions: COVID-19 was documented in 17% of active NAPRTCS participants. While there was no documented mortality, the majority of participants were symptomatic, and a quarter required hospitalization.

Keywords: COVID-19; Chronic kidney disease; Dialysis; SARS-CoV-2; Transplant.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury*
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / therapy
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • North America / epidemiology
  • Registries
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult