Aging Hallmarks and Progression and Age-Related Diseases: A Landscape View of Research Advancement

ACS Chem Neurosci. 2024 Jan 3;15(1):1-30. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.3c00531. Epub 2023 Dec 14.


Aging is a dynamic, time-dependent process that is characterized by a gradual accumulation of cell damage. Continual functional decline in the intrinsic ability of living organisms to accurately regulate homeostasis leads to increased susceptibility and vulnerability to diseases. Many efforts have been put forth to understand and prevent the effects of aging. Thus, the major cellular and molecular hallmarks of aging have been identified, and their relationships to age-related diseases and malfunctions have been explored. Here, we use data from the CAS Content Collection to analyze the publication landscape of recent aging-related research. We review the advances in knowledge and delineate trends in research advancements on aging factors and attributes across time and geography. We also review the current concepts related to the major aging hallmarks on the molecular, cellular, and organismic level, age-associated diseases, with attention to brain aging and brain health, as well as the major biochemical processes associated with aging. Major age-related diseases have been outlined, and their correlations with the major aging features and attributes are explored. We hope this review will be helpful for apprehending the current knowledge in the field of aging mechanisms and progression, in an effort to further solve the remaining challenges and fulfill its potential.

Keywords: Aging; brain aging; epigenetic; inflammaging; longevity; senescence; stem cell; telomere.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Cellular Senescence* / physiology