Monitoring and reporting the US COVID-19 vaccination effort

Vaccine. 2023 Dec 13:S0264-410X(23)01438-X. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2023.12.005. Online ahead of print.


Immunizations are an important tool to reduce the burden of vaccine preventable diseases and improve population health.1 High-quality immunization data is essential to inform clinical and public health interventions and respond to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. To track COVID-19 vaccines and vaccinations, CDC established an integrated network that included vaccination provider systems, health information exchange systems, immunization information systems, pharmacy and dialysis systems, vaccine ordering systems, electronic health records, and tools to support mass vaccination clinics. All these systems reported data to CDC's COVID-19 response system (either directly or indirectly) where it was processed, analyzed, and disseminated. This unprecedented vaccine tracking effort provided essential information for public health officials that was used to monitor the COVID-19 response and guide decisions. This paper will describe systems, processes, and policies that enabled monitoring and reporting of COVID-19 vaccination efforts and share challenges and lessons learned for future public health emergency responses.

Keywords: COVID-19; Immunization; Informatics; Public health emergency response; Public health surveillance; Vaccine administration.