BACH1 changes microglial metabolism and affects astrogenesis during mouse brain development

Dev Cell. 2024 Jan 8;59(1):108-124.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2023.11.018. Epub 2023 Dec 14.


Microglia are highly heterogeneous as resident immune cells in the central nervous system. Although the proinflammatory phenotype of microglia is driven by the metabolic transformation in the disease state, the mechanism of metabolic reprogramming in microglia and whether it affects surrounding astrocyte progenitors have not been well elucidated. Here, we illustrate the communication between microglial metabolism and astrogenesis during embryonic development. The transcription factor BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) reduces lactate production by inhibiting two key enzymes, HK2 and GAPDH, during glycolysis. Metabolic perturbation of microglia reduces lactate-dependent histone modification enrichment at the Lrrc15 promoter. The microglia-derived LRRC15 interacts with CD248 to participate in the JAK/STAT pathway and influence astrogenesis. In addition, Bach1cKO-Cx3 mice exhibit abnormal neuronal differentiation and anxiety-like behaviors. Altogether, this work suggests that the maintenance of microglia metabolic homeostasis during early brain development is closely related to astrogenesis, providing insights into astrogenesis and related diseases.

Keywords: BACH1; LRRC15; astrogenesis; histone lactylation; microglia metabolism.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Female
  • Janus Kinases* / metabolism
  • Lactates / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Microglia* / metabolism
  • Pregnancy
  • STAT Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction


  • Janus Kinases
  • Lactates
  • STAT Transcription Factors
  • Bach1 protein, mouse