H3 K27M-altered glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: Semi-systematic review of treatment landscape and future directions

Neuro Oncol. 2024 May 3;26(Supplement_2):S110-S124. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/noad220.


H3 K27M-mutant diffuse glioma is a recently identified brain tumor associated with poor prognosis. As of 2016, it is classified by the World Health Organization as a distinct form of grade IV glioma. Despite recognition as an important prognostic and diagnostic feature in diffuse glioma, radiation remains the sole standard of care and no effective systemic therapies are available for H3K27M mutant tumors. This review will detail treatment interventions applied to diffuse midline glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) prior to the identification of the H3 K27M mutation, the current standard-of-care for H3 K27M-mutant diffuse glioma treatment, and ongoing clinical trials listed on www.clinicaltrials.gov evaluating novel therapeutics in this population. Current clinical trials were identified using clinicaltrials.gov, and studies qualifying for this analysis were active or ongoing interventional trials that evaluated a therapy in at least 1 treatment arm or cohort comprised exclusively of patients with DIPG and H3 K27M-mutant glioma. Forty-one studies met these criteria, including trials evaluating H3 K27M vaccination, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, and small molecule inhibitors. Ongoing evaluation of novel therapeutics is necessary to identify safe and effective interventions in this underserved patient population.

Keywords: H3 K27-altered; H3 K27M; clinical trials; diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma; diffuse midline glioma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain Neoplasms / genetics
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • Brain Stem Neoplasms / genetics
  • Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology
  • Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy
  • Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma* / genetics
  • Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma* / pathology
  • Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma* / therapy
  • Glioma* / genetics
  • Glioma* / pathology
  • Glioma* / therapy
  • Histones* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Mutation*
  • Prognosis


  • Histones