The potential mechanism of concentrated mannan-oligosaccharide promoting goldfish's (Carassius auratus Linnaeus) resistance to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis invasion

Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2024 Jan:144:109290. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2023.109290. Epub 2023 Dec 15.


Because of the low host specificity, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) can widely cause white spot disease in aquatic animals, which is extremely difficult to treat. Prior research has demonstrated a considerable impact of concentrated mannan-oligosaccharide (cMOS) on the prevention of white spot disease in goldfish, but the specific mechanism is still unknown. In this study, transcriptome sequencing, histological analysis, immunofluorescence analysis, phagocytosis activity assay and qRT-PCR assay were used to systematically reveal the potential mechanism of cMOS in supporting the resistance of goldfish (Carrasius auratus) to Ich invasion. According to the transcriptome analysis, the gill tissue of goldfish receiving the cMOS diet showed greater expression of mannose-receptor (MRC) related genes, higher phagocytosis activity, up-regulated expression of phagocytosis-related genes and inflammatory-related genes compared with the control, indicating that cMOS can have an effect on phagocytosis and non-specific immunity of goldfish. After the Ich challenge, transcriptome analysis revealed that cMOS fed goldfish displayed a higher level of phagocytic response, whereas non-cMOS fed goldfish displayed a greater inflammatory reaction. Besides, after Ich infection, cMOS-fed goldfish displayed greater phagocytosis activity, a stronger MRC positive signal, higher expression of genes associated with phagocytosis (ABCB2, C3, MRC), and lower expression of genes associated with inflammation (IL-1β, IL-17, IL-8, TNF-α, NFKB). In conclusion, our experimental results suggest that cMOS may support phagocytosis by binding to MRC on the macrophage cell membrane and change the non-specific immunity of goldfish by stimulating cytokine expression. The results of this study provide new insights for the mechanism of cMOS on parasitic infection, and also suggest phagocytosis-related pathways may be potential targets for prevention of Ich infection.

Keywords: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis; Immune; Macrophages; Mannan-oligosaccharide; Mannose receptor; Phagocytosis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Fish Diseases*
  • Goldfish*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mannans / pharmacology
  • Phagocytosis


  • Mannans
  • Cytokines