Understanding Posterior Staphyloma in Pathologic Myopia: Current Overview, New Input, and Perspectives

Clin Ophthalmol. 2023 Dec 12:17:3825-3853. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S405202. eCollection 2023.

Abstract

Posterior staphyloma (PS) is considered the hallmark of pathologic myopia and is defined as an outpouching of a circumscribed portion of the eyeball with a radius of curvature smaller than that of the adjacent zone. Although more common in eyes with high myopia, it can affect those without it. The presence of PS is associated with a structurally and functionally worse course of high myopia that can lead to visual disability. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of PS is unclear so far. Thus, due to the increasing prevalence of myopia which has been further exacerbated by the advent of COVID-19 lockdown, researchers are eager to elucidate the pathogenesis of pathologic myopia and that of its complications, especially PS, which will allow the development of preventive strategies. The aim of this work was to review the morphological characteristics of PS with emphasis on similarities with peripapillary staphyloma and to discuss the pathogenesis of PS considering recent suggestions about that of peripapillary staphyloma.

Keywords: myopia; oblique muscles; optic nerve sheaths; optical coherence tomography; pathogenesis; staphyloma.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

No funding was received for this work.