On antigen-specific signals, immune class regulation and energetics: Report III from the workshops on foundational concepts of immune regulation

Scand J Immunol. 2023 Sep;98(3):e13311. doi: 10.1111/sji.13311. Epub 2023 Jul 11.


This is a report from a one-week workshop held in Athens, Greece in July of 2022. The workshop aimed to identify emerging concepts relevant to the fundamentals of immune regulation and areas for future research. Theories of immune regulation emphasize the role of T cell help or co-stimulation (signal 2). The workshop participants considered how new data on the characteristics of agonist antigens, the role of the antigen receptor signals (signal 1) in driving fate decisions, the effect of energetics on immunity and a better understanding of class-control in the immune response, may impact theories of immune regulation. These ideas were discussed in the context of tumour immunology, autoimmunity, pregnancy and transplantation. Here we present the discussions as a narrative of different viewpoints to allow the reader to join the conversation. These discussions highlight the evolving understanding of the nature of specific antigen recognition and how both antigen-specific and non-specific mechanisms impact immune responses.

Keywords: T cell receptors, processes; anergy, molecules; antigens; diseases; autoimmunity; diseases; cancer, processes; epitopes; molecules; peptides; solid organ transplantation; suppression; tolerance; transplantation; tumor immunity.

MeSH terms

  • Antigens*
  • Autoimmunity
  • Humans
  • T-Lymphocytes*


  • Antigens