Multicentric Carpo-Tarsal Osteolysis Syndrome (MCTO) and "Function Profile": a rehabilitative approach

Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2023 Dec 20;18(1):392. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02976-z.


Background: Multicentric Carpo-Tarsal Osteolysis Syndrome (MCTO) is an autosomal dominant disease with increased bone reabsorption in the carpus and tarsus and the elbows, knees and spine. The disease is extremely heterogeneous and secondary and tertiary injuries vary widely and can lead to progressive disability and severe functional limitations. In addition to the available and upcoming drug therapies, physical medicine and rehabilitation are important treatment options. Currently, the indication and plan are overlooked, nonspecific and reported only for one patient.

Methods: We describe a case series of MCTO patients diagnosed and followed by a centre to identify functional deficit as a potential clinical marker of disease progression for future etiological therapies. In addition, we define a symptomatic treatment approach and specific clinical management, including a patient-centred rehabilitation approach. Functional assessments are performed independently by a multidisciplinary group to establish the functional abilities of patients and the relationship between residual motor skills and their degree of autonomy and participation. We suggest a way to identify a rehabilitation plan based on a specific disease using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

Results: To define a reliable and reproducible "Function Profile", through age and over time, we used to value the disease status according to the ICF-CY domains. It could be used to determine the complexity of the illness, its overall impact on the complexity of the person and the burden on the caregiver, and an eventual short- and long-term rehabilitation plan for MCTO and other ultra-rare diseases.

Conclusion: Based on the MCTO experience, we suggest a way to determine a rehabilitation plan based on a specific disease and patient needs, keeping in mind that often the final point is not recovering the full function but improving or maintaining the starting point. In all cases, each patient at the time of diagnosis requires a functional assessment that must be repeated over time to adjust the course of rehabilitation. The evaluations revealed the importance of early rehabilitation management in enhancing independence, participation and control of stress deconditioning, shrinking of muscle tendons and loss of movement to immobility.

Keywords: Clinical outcome measures; ICF-CY; Multicentric carpo-tarsal osteolysis; Occupational therapy; Physiotherapy; Rehabilitation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Disease Progression
  • Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome*
  • Humans
  • Osteolysis* / diagnosis