In 1964, Smith et al described a syndrome of microcephaly, growth and mental retardation, unusual facial appearance, syndactyly of toes 2 and 3, and genital abnormalities. Major structural malformations and early death have been uncommon in the many subsequent literature reports. We report on 19 infants with a phenotype we propose to call Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS)-Type II, in which major structural abnormalities, male pseudohermaphroditism, and early lethality are common. Of these 19 patients, 18 had postaxial hexadactyly, 16 had congenital heart defect, 13 had cleft palate, and 10 had cataracts. Unusual findings seen in these patients at autopsy included Hirschsprung "disease" in five patients, unilobated lungs in six, large adrenals in four, and pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia in three. Comparison of our cases to 19 similar literature cases suggests the existence of a distinct phenotype that may be separate from SLOS as originally described. It is also inherited as an autosomal recessive, as documented by occurrence in one pair of sibs in this study and recurrence in three reported families.