Relationship between Eating Habits and 4-Nonylphenol Concentration in Breast Milk of Women in Slovakia

Life (Basel). 2023 Dec 18;13(12):2361. doi: 10.3390/life13122361.


4-Nonylphenol belongs to the alkylphenol group of chemicals, and its high occurrence in the environment can cause an adverse effect on human health. Breast milk can serve as a marker to take measure of human exposure to these chemicals through different routes of exposure. In this work, the influence of selected factors (the kind of water drank by the mothers; the consumption of fish, pork, and beef; wearing gloves; using nail polish, gel nails, vitamins, and medication) on the concentration on 4-nonylphenol in 89 breast milk samples was studied. The concentrations of nonylphenol in breast milk were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The lowest and highest concentrations of 4-nonylphenol in breast milk were 0.97 ng/mL and 4.37 ng/mL, respectively. Statistical significance was observed for the consumption of pork (p = 0.048) and fish (0.041) in relation to the 4-nonylphenol concentration. Certain parameters (use of gel nails, beef consumption, and vitamin supplementation) were at the border of statistical significance (p = 0.06). Other parameters did not show any statistical significance. The results showed that breast milk in Slovakia does not contain a harmful dose of 4-nonylphenol and does not cause health problems. But it is necessary to continue this research and perform extended screening on a larger number of samples.

Keywords: 4-nonylphenol; HPLC-SPE analysis; breast milk; breastfeeding; lifestyle.

Grants and funding

This research was funded by project of Slovak internal grant (SVG) number 07/2021 of the Slovak Medical University in Bratislava.