Classic Galactosemia: Clinical and Computational Characterization of a Novel GALT Missense Variant (p.A303D) and a Literature Review

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Dec 12;24(24):17388. doi: 10.3390/ijms242417388.


Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive inherited liver disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by deficient activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). While a galactose-restricted diet is lifesaving, most patients still develop long-term complications. In this study, we report on a two-week-old female patient who is a compound heterozygote for a known pathogenic variant (p.K285N) and a novel missense variant (p.A303D) in the GALT gene. Segregation analysis showed that the patient inherited the p.K285N pathogenic variant from her father and the p.A303D variant from her mother. A bioinformatics analysis to predict the impact of the p.A303D missense variant on the structure and stability of the GALT protein revealed that it may be pathogenic. Based on this finding, we performed a literature review of all GALT missense variants identified in homozygous and compound heterozygous galactosemia patients carrying the p.K285N pathogenic variant to explore their molecular effects on the clinical phenotype of the disease. Our analysis revealed that these missense variants are responsible for a wide range of molecular defects. This study expands the clinical and mutational spectrum in classic galactosemia and reinforces the importance of understanding the molecular consequences of genetic variants to incorporate genetic analysis into clinical care.

Keywords: GALT; classic galactosemia; novel missense variant.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Galactose
  • Galactosemias* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • Mutation, Missense
  • UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase* / genetics
  • UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase* / metabolism


  • Galactose
  • UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase