Association between Masticatory Performance, Nutritional Intake, and Frailty in Japanese Older Adults

Nutrients. 2023 Dec 12;15(24):5075. doi: 10.3390/nu15245075.

Abstract

The older adult population in Japan is expected to increase. Therefore, long-term care and frailty prevention are important. However, the relationship between masticatory performance, nutritional intake, and frailty remains unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine energy, protein, and vitamin D intake and its association with frailty and masticatory performance in older adults. Patients between January 2022 and January 2023 were recruited and divided into robust and frail groups. Masticatory performance, nutrition, frailty, and other data, such as age and sex, were evaluated through onsite measurements and a questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was conducted with frailty as a dependent variable and masticatory performance as an independent variable, adjusting for age, sex, skeletal muscle mass, living alone, energy intake, protein-energy ratio, and vitamin D intake. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding age or sex. The robust group showed significantly better results for protein-energy ratio, vitamin D intake, and subjective and objective masticatory performance than the frail group. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between skeletal muscle mass, protein-energy ratio, and objective masticatory performance with frailty. Masticatory performance was associated with frailty, independent of the intake of nutrients such as energy, protein, and vitamin D.

Keywords: Japanese; aged; cross-sectional study; frailty; long-term care prevention; masticatory performance; nutritional intake; older adults; protein intake; vitamin D intake.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Eating
  • Frail Elderly
  • Frailty* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Vitamin D

Substances

  • Vitamin D