Effect of non-thermal plasma treatment and resin cements on the bond strength of zirconia ceramics with different yttria concentrations

Biomed Tech (Berl). 2023 Dec 26;69(3):249-255. doi: 10.1515/bmt-2023-0336. Print 2024 Jun 25.


Objectives: To investigate the effect of different surface treatments and resin cements on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramics with different yttria concentrations.

Methods: Zirconia blocks characterized by different yttria concentrations [Vita YZ HT (HT), Vita YZ ST (ST) and Vita YZ XT (XT)] were used to prepare disc-shaped specimens (n=252). Specimens prepared to investigate shear bond strength (SBS), water contact angle and surface roughness (Ra) were divided into four subgroups; control (C), sandblasting (S), sandblasting + nonthermal plasma treatment (SNTP) and nonthermal plasma treatment (NTP). For SBS testing, specimens were further divided into two groups (n=108) according to the luting cement used [Panavia F2.0 (P) and Rely X U200 (R)]. The water contact angles were determined by sessile drop technique and Ra was analyzed with optical profilometer. SBS tests were performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data sets were statistically analyzed with two and three-way ANOVAs followed by post-hoc comparisons (α=0.05).

Results: The water contact angle and Ra data were significantly affected by surface treatments. The mean Ra values of ST and XT were significantly lower than HT for the surface treatment groups of C and NTP. The SBS values were significantly different among the groups subjected to different surface treatments. The mean SBS values of surface treatment groups (S, SNTP and NTP) when cemented with R were significantly higher than the groups of C (p<0.05).

Conclusions: For the tested zirconia ceramics with different yttria concentrations, non-thermal plasma activation helps to improve SBS and is a promising tool in practical use.

Keywords: plasma activation; shear bond strength; surface treatments; zirconia ceramics.

MeSH terms

  • Ceramics* / chemistry
  • Materials Testing
  • Plasma Gases / chemistry
  • Resin Cements* / chemistry
  • Shear Strength
  • Surface Properties
  • Yttrium* / chemistry
  • Zirconium* / chemistry


  • Zirconium
  • Yttrium
  • Resin Cements
  • zirconium oxide
  • yttria
  • Plasma Gases