The influence of truncated-conical implant length on primary stability in maxillary and mandibular regions: an in vitro study using polyurethane blocks

Clin Oral Investig. 2023 Dec 26;28(1):28. doi: 10.1007/s00784-023-05444-x.


Objectives: This in vitro study is aimed at assessing whether implant primary stability is influenced by implant length in artificial bone with varying densities.

Materials and methods: A total of 120 truncated-conical implants (60 long-length: 3p L, 3.8 × 14 mm; 60 short-length: 3p S, 3.8 × 8 mm) were inserted into 20, 30, and 40 pounds per cubic foot (PCF) density polyurethane blocks. The insertion torque (IT), removal torque (RT), and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) values were recorded for each experimental condition.

Results: In 30 and 40 PCF blocks, 3p S implants exhibited significantly higher IT values (90 and 80 Ncm, respectively) than 3p L (85 and 50 Ncm, respectively). Similarly, RT was significantly higher for 3p S implants in 30 and 40 PCF blocks (57 and 90 Ncm, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in RFA values, except for the 20 PCF block, where 3pS implants showed significantly lower values (63 ISQ) than 3p L implants (67 ISQ) in both the distal and mesial directions.

Conclusions: These results demonstrated that the implant's length mainly influences the IT and RT values in the polyurethane blocks that mimic the mandibular region of the bone, resulting in higher values for the 3p S implants, while the RFA values remained unaffected. However, in the lowest density block simulating the maxillary bone, 3p L implants exhibited significantly higher ISQ values.

Clinical relevance: Therefore, our data offer valuable insights into the biomechanical behavior of these implants, which could be clinically beneficial for enhancing surgical planning.

Keywords: Artificial bone; Implant length; Implant stability quotient; Insertion torque; Polyurethane; Short dental implants.

MeSH terms

  • Dental Implants*
  • Maxilla*
  • Polyurethanes
  • Resonance Frequency Analysis
  • Torque


  • Polyurethanes
  • Dental Implants