Logistic regression methods for retrospective case-control studies using complex sampling procedures

Biometrics. 1986 Dec;42(4):955-60.


There are a number of possible designs for case-control studies. The simplest uses two separate simple random samples, but an actual study may use more complex sampling procedures. Typically, stratification is used to control for the effects of one or more risk factors in which we are interested. It has been shown (Anderson, 1972, Biometrika 59, 19-35; Prentice and Pyke, 1979, Biometrika 66, 403-411) that the unconditional logistic regression estimators apply under stratified sampling, so long as the logistic model includes a term for each stratum. We consider the case-control problem with stratified samples and assume a logistic model that does not include terms for strata, i.e., for fixed covariates the (prospective) probability of disease does not depend on stratum. We assume knowledge of the proportion sampled in each stratum as well as the total number in the stratum. We use this knowledge to obtain the maximum likelihood estimators for all parameters in the logistic model including those for variables completely associated with strata. The approach may also be applied to obtain estimators under probability sampling.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic*
  • Humans
  • Regression Analysis
  • Research Design*
  • Retrospective Studies*