Genetic Characterization of Pediatric Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia (MPAL)

Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2024 Jan-Feb;21(1):1-11. doi: 10.21873/cgp.20424.


Background/aim: Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a rare hematologic malignancy in which the leukemic cells cannot be assigned to any specific lineage. The lack of well-defined, pathogenetically relevant diagnostic criteria makes the clinical handling of MPAL patients challenging. We herein report the genetic findings in bone marrow cells from two pediatric MPAL patients.

Patients and methods: Bone marrow cells were examined using G-banding, array comparative genomic hybridization, RNA sequencing, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Sanger sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Results: In the first patient, the genetic analyses revealed structural aberrations of chromosomal bands 8p11, 10p11, 11q21, and 17p11, the chimeras MLLT10::PICALM and PICALM::MLLT10, and imbalances (gains/losses) on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, 13, and 21. A submicroscopic deletion in 21q was also found including the RUNX1 locus. In the second patient, there were structural aberrations of chromosome bands 1p32, 8p11, 12p13, 20p13, and 20q11, the chimeras ETV6::LEXM and NCOA6::ETV6, and imbalances on chromosomes 2, 8, 11, 12, 16, 19, X, and Y.

Conclusion: The leukemic cells from both MPAL patients carried chromosome aberrations resulting in fusion genes as well as genomic imbalances resulting in gain and losses of many gene loci. The detected fusion genes probably represent the main leukemogenic events, although the gains and losses are also likely to play a role in leukemogenesis.

Keywords: ETV6; ETV6::LEXM; LEXM; MLLT10; MLLT10::PICALM; NCOA6; NCOA6::ETV6; PICALM; PICALM::MLLT10; Pediatric mixed phenotype acute leukemias; fusion gene.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Comparative Genomic Hybridization
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Oncogene Proteins, Fusion* / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma* / genetics
  • Translocation, Genetic


  • Oncogene Proteins, Fusion