Understanding the Therapeutic Approaches for Neuroprotection

Curr Pharm Des. 2023;29(42):3368-3384. doi: 10.2174/0113816128275761231103102125.


The term "neurodegenerative disorders" refers to a group of illnesses in which deterioration of nerve structure and function is a prominent feature. Cognitive capacities such as memory and decision-making deteriorate as a result of neuronal damage. The primary difficulty that remains is safeguarding neurons since they do not proliferate or regenerate spontaneously and are therefore not substituted by the body after they have been damaged. Millions of individuals throughout the world suffer from neurodegenerative diseases. Various pathways lead to neurodegeneration, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, calcium ion overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptosis. Although different treatments and therapies are available for neuroprotection after a brain injury or damage, the obstacles are inextricably connected. Several studies have revealed the pathogenic effects of hypothermia, different breathed gases, stem cell treatments, mitochondrial transplantation, multi-pharmacological therapy, and other therapies that have improved neurological recovery and survival outcomes after brain damage. The present review highlights the use of therapeutic approaches that can be targeted to develop and understand significant therapies for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Neurodegenerative diseases; brain injury/damage; drug targeting; neurodegeneration; oxidative stress; therapeutics..

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain Injuries* / metabolism
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
  • Humans
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases* / metabolism
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Neuroprotection
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology