The Molecular Blueprint for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A New Paradigm for Diagnosis and Therapeutics

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2023 Dec 21:2023:2297559. doi: 10.1155/2023/2297559. eCollection 2023.


The global prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has increased over the last decade and has emerged as the third leading cause of death worldwide. It is characterized by emphysema with prolonged airflow limitation. COPD patients are more susceptible to COVID-19 and increase the disease severity about four times. The most used drugs to treat it show numerous side effects, including immune suppression and infection. This review discusses a narrative opinion and critical review of COPD. We present different aspects of the disease, from cellular and inflammatory responses to cigarette smoking in COPD and signaling pathways. In addition, we highlighted various risk factors for developing COPD apart from smoking, like occupational exposure, pollutants, genetic factors, gender, etc. After the recent elucidation of the underlying inflammatory signaling pathways in COPD, new molecular targeted drug candidates for COPD are signal-transmitting substances. We further summarize recent developments in biomarker discovery for COPD and its implications for disease diagnosis. In addition, we discuss novel drug targets for COPD that could be explored for drug development and subsequent clinical management of cardiovascular disease and COVID-19, commonly associated with COPD. Our extensive analysis of COPD cause, etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic will provide a better understanding of the disease and the development of effective therapeutic options. In-depth knowledge of the underlying mechanism will offer deeper insights into identifying novel molecular targets for developing potent therapeutics and biomarkers of disease diagnosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Testing
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Humans
  • Lung
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / drug therapy
  • Pulmonary Emphysema*
  • Risk Factors