VEXAS syndrome: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment

Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed). 2024 Jan;20(1):47-56. doi: 10.1016/j.reumae.2023.12.004. Epub 2023 Dec 29.


VEXAS (Vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, Autoinflammatory, Somatic) syndrome is an adult-onset autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by somatic mutations in the UBA1 gene and is considered the prototype of hematoinflammatory diseases. Patients with VEXAS syndrome exhibit inflammatory and hematological manifestations that can lead to clinical diagnoses such as relapsing polychondritis, polyarteritis nodosa, Sweet syndrome, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Diagnosis requires bone marrow evaluation to identify cytoplasmic vacuoles in myeloid and erythroid precursors. However, genetic confirmation of mutations in UBA1 is necessary. Treatment is challenging and often involves glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants with variable responses. Hypomethylating agents and allogenic haemopoietic stem cell transplant are considered promising therapies. Prognosis is influenced by genetic and clinical factors. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis of VEXAS syndrome for the Latin American medical community.

Keywords: Autoinflammatory syndrome; Policondritis recidivante; Relapsing polychondritis; Sweet syndrome; Síndrome autoinflamatorio; Síndrome de VEXAS; Síndrome de sweet; VEXAS syndrome; Vasculitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Mutation
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes*
  • Skin Diseases, Genetic*


  • Glucocorticoids
  • Immunosuppressive Agents

Supplementary concepts

  • VEXAS syndrome