Background: Nanotechnology has revolutionized medicine, especially in oncological treatments. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stand out as an innovative alternative due to their biocompatibility, potential for surface modification, and effectiveness in radiotherapeutic techniques. Given that prostate cancer ranks as one of the leading malignancies among men, there's a pressing need to investigate new therapeutic approaches. Methods: AuNPs coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were synthesized and their cytotoxicity was assessed against prostate tumor cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3), healthy prostate cells (RWPE-1), and endothelial control cells (HUVEC) using the MTS/PMS assay. For in vivo studies, BALB/C Nude mice were employed to gauge the therapeutic efficacy, biodistribution, and hematological implications post-treatment with BSA-coated AuNPs. Results: The BSA-coated AuNPs exhibited cytotoxic potential against PC-3 and LNCaP lines, while interactions with RWPE-1 and HUVEC remain subjects for further scrutiny. Within animal models, a diverse therapeutic response was observed, with certain instances indicating complete tumor regression. Biodistribution data emphasized the nanoparticles' affinity towards particular organs, and the majority of hematological indicators aligned with normative standards. Conclusions: BSA-coated AuNPs manifest substantial promise as therapeutic tools in treating prostate cancer. The present research not only accentuates the nanoparticles' efficacy but also stresses the imperative of optimization to ascertain both selectivity and safety. Such findings illuminate a promising trajectory for avant-garde therapeutic modalities, holding substantial implications for public health advancements.
Keywords: Cytotoxicity; Nanobrachytherapy; Prostate Cancer; Radioactive Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs); Therapeutic Efficacy.
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