Imaging findings in inflammatory disease of the genital organs

Jpn J Radiol. 2024 Apr;42(4):331-346. doi: 10.1007/s11604-023-01518-8. Epub 2024 Jan 2.


This review focuses on inflammatory diseases of female and male genital organs and discusses their epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and imaging findings. The female section covers pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) primarily caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that affect the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Unusual causes such as actinomycosis and tuberculosis have also been explored. The male section delves into infections affecting the vas deferens, epididymis, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles. Uncommon causes such as tuberculosis, and Zinner syndrome have also been discussed. In addition, this review highlights other conditions that mimic male genital tract infections such as vasculitis, IgG4-related diseases, and sarcoidosis. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of these inflammatory diseases are essential for preventing serious complications and infertility. Imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography play a crucial role in diagnosis. Understanding the diverse etiologies and imaging findings is vital for the effective management of inflammatory diseases of the genital organs.

Keywords: Actinomycosis; Genital organ; Pelvic inflammatory disease; Tuberculosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Genitalia / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease* / complications
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease* / diagnosis
  • Prostate
  • Tuberculosis* / complications
  • Uterus