Mapping of the avian neural primordium was carried out at the early somitic stages by substituting definite regions of the chick embryo by their quail counterpart. The quail nuclear marker made it possible to identify precisely the derivatives of the grafted areas within the chimeric cephalic structures. A fate map of the prosencephalic neural plate and neural folds is presented. Moreover the origin of the forebrain meninges from the pro- and mesencephalic neural crest is demonstrated. In the light of the data resulting from these experiments, we present a rationale for the genesis of malformations of the face and brain and of congenital endocrine abnormalities occurring in man.