Dosing strategies for de novo once-daily extended release tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients based on CYP3A5 genotype

World J Transplant. 2023 Dec 18;13(6):368-378. doi: 10.5500/wjt.v13.i6.368.


Background: Tacrolimus extended-release tablets have been Food and Drug Administration-approved for use in the de novo kidney transplant population. Dosing requi rements often vary for tacrolimus based on several factors including variation in metabolism based on CYP3A5 expression. Patients who express CYP3A5 often require higher dosing of immediate-release tacrolimus, but this has not been established for tacrolimus extended-release tablets in the de novo setting.

Aim: To obtain target trough concentrations of extended-release tacrolimus in de novo kidney transplant recipients according to CYP3A5 genotype.

Methods: Single-arm, prospective, single-center, open-label, observational study ( NCT037 13645). Life cycle pharma tacrolimus (LCPT) orally once daily at a starting dose of 0.13 mg/kg/day based on actual body weight. If weight is more than 120% of ideal body weight, an adjusted body weight was used. LCPT dose was adjusted to maintain tacrolimus trough concentrations of 8-10 ng/mL. Pharmacogenetic analysis of CYP3A5 genotype was performed at study conclusion.

Results: Mean time to therapeutic tacrolimus trough concentration was longer in CYP3A5 intermediate and extensive metabolizers vs CYP3A5 non-expressers (6 d vs 13.5 d vs 4.5 d; P = 0.025). Mean tacrolimus doses and weight-based doses to achieve therapeutic concentration were higher in CYP3A5 intermediate and extensive metabolizers vs CYP3A5 non-expressers (16 mg vs 16 mg vs 12 mg; P = 0.010) (0.20 mg/kg vs 0.19 mg/kg vs 0.13 mg/kg; P = 0.018). CYP3A5 extensive metabolizers experienced lower mean tacrolimus trough concentrations throughout the study period compared to CYP3A5 intermediate metabolizers and non-expressers (7.98 ng/mL vs 9.18 ng/mL vs 10.78 ng/mL; P = 0 0.008). No differences were identified with regards to kidney graft function at 30-d post-transplant. Serious adverse events were reported for 13 (36%) patients.

Conclusion: Expression of CYP3A5 leads to higher starting doses and incremental dosage titration of extended-release tacro limus to achieve target trough concentrations. We suggest a higher starting dose of 0.2 mg/kg/d for CYP3A5 expressers.

Trial registration: NCT00000037.

Keywords: Dosing; Genotype; Immunosuppression; Kidney transplant; Tacrolimus; Therapeutic drug monitoring.

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