Age-Related Macular Degeneration Choroidal Vascular Distribution Characteristics Based on Indocyanine Green Angiography

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2024 Jan 2;65(1):16. doi: 10.1167/iovs.65.1.16.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present our findings of the distribution pattern of choroidal arteries and large veins in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA).

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 980 patients who underwent ICGA at The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from 2017 to 2023, including 240 patients with AMD. Secondary image processing was applied to the angiographic videos to obtain posterior distribution maps of choroidal arteries and large veins. Differences between different distribution patterns regarding age, gender, eye laterality, and circulation time were compared. We also conducted a comparison of choroidal vascular distribution characteristics between patients with AMD and patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and provided a summary of choroidal vascular distribution patterns in AMD.

Results: The filling patterns of choroidal arteries can be classified into the invisible trunk arteries type, the partially masked trunk arteries type, and the exposed trunk arteries type. The vascular topography of the large choroidal vein can be classified into the watershed type, the non-watershed type, and the unknown type, further divided into six subtypes. The distribution patterns of choroidal arteries and veins were significantly correlated with age (P < 0.001). Left eye, older age, and the exposed trunk arteries type were independent risk factors for non-watershed large choroidal vein (P < 0.05). The non-watershed type was the main characteristic of the venous phase in AMD.

Conclusions: The distribution characteristics of the arterial and venous patterns in AMD suggest atrophy of the small blood vessels in the choroid and insufficient perfusion pressure of the blood flow.

MeSH terms

  • Angiography
  • Choroid
  • Humans
  • Indocyanine Green*
  • Macular Degeneration* / diagnosis
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Indocyanine Green