Recent progress in the synthesis of glycosphingolipids

Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2024 Feb:78:102423. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2023.102423. Epub 2024 Jan 6.


To accelerate the biological study and application of the diverse functions of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), the production of structurally defined GSLs has been greatly demanded. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of GSLs. In the chemical synthesis section, the syntheses based on glucosyl ceramide cassette, late-stage sialylation, and diversity-oriented strategies for GSLs or ganglioside synthesis are highlighted, which delivered terpioside B, fluorescent sialyl lactotetraosyl ceramide, and analogs of lacto-ganglio-series GSLs, respectively. In the chemoenzymatic synthesis section, the synthesis of ganglioside GM1 by multistep one-pot multienzyme method and the total synthesis of highly complex ganglioside LLG-5 using a water-soluble lactosyl ceramide as a key substrate for enzymatic sialylation are described.

Keywords: Chemical synthesis; Chemoenzymatic synthesis; Gangliosides; Glycosphingolipids.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Gangliosides*
  • Glycosphingolipids*


  • Glycosphingolipids
  • Gangliosides