Multilayer concept of autoimmune mechanisms and manifestations in inborn errors of immunity: Relevance for precision therapy

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2024 Mar;153(3):615-628.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2023.12.022. Epub 2024 Jan 6.


Autoimmunity in inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) has a multifactorial pathogenesis and develops subsequent to a genetic predisposition in conjunction with gene regulation, environmental modifiers, and infectious triggers. On the basis of incremental data availability owing to upfront application of omics technologies, a more granular and dynamic view of mechanisms and manifestations is warranted. Here, we present a comprehensive novel concept of autoimmunity in IEIs that considers multiple layers of interdependent elements and connects 101 causative genes or deletions according to the quality of the allelic variants with 47 molecular pathways and 22 immune effector mechanisms. Furthermore, we list 50 resulting manifestations together with the corresponding Human Phenotype Ontology terms and review the types and frequencies of the most relevant clinical presentations. When all of its elements are taken together, this concept (1) extends the historical anatomic view of central versus peripheral tolerance toward multiple interdependent mechanisms of immune tolerance, (2) delineates the mechanisms underlying the protean clinical manifestations, and thereby, (3) points toward the most suitable precision therapy for autoimmunity in IEIs. The multilayer concept of autoimmune mechanisms and manifestations in IEIs will facilitate research design and provide clinical guidance on the use of precision medicine irrespective of the data depth available in each health care scenario.

Keywords: European Society for Immunodeficiency; Inborn error of immunity; autoimmunity; genetics; human phenotype ontology; next-generation sequencing; pathophysiology; precision therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Autoimmunity*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Precision Medicine*