Total hip replacement using porous-coated cobalt-chrome femoral implants designed for biological fixation has been evaluated in 307 patients after two years and in 89 patients after five years. Histological study of 11 retrieved specimens showed bone ingrowth in nine and fibrous tissue fixation in two. Fixation by bone ingrowth occurred in 93% of the cases in which a press fit of the stem at the isthmus was achieved, but in only 69% of those without a press fit. The clinical results at two years were excellent. The incidence of pain and limp was much lower when there was either a press fit of the stem or radiographic evidence of bone ingrowth. Factors such as age, sex, and the disease process did not influence the clinical results. Most cases showed only slight resorptive remodelling of the upper femur, but in a few cases with a larger, more rigid stem, more extensive bone loss occurred. The results after five years showed no deterioration with time. Fixation by the ingrowth of bone or of fibrous tissue both appeared to be stable, but bone ingrowth gave better clinical results.