BPG4 regulates chloroplast development and homeostasis by suppressing GLK transcription factors and involving light and brassinosteroid signaling

Nat Commun. 2024 Jan 8;15(1):370. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-44492-5.


Chloroplast development adapts to the environment for performing suitable photosynthesis. Brassinosteroids (BRs), plant steroid hormones, have crucial effects on not only plant growth but also chloroplast development. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of BR signaling in chloroplast development remain unclear. Here, we identify a regulator of chloroplast development, BPG4, involved in light and BR signaling. BPG4 interacts with GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors that promote the expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs), and suppresses their activities, thereby causing a decrease in the amounts of chlorophylls and the size of light-harvesting complexes. BPG4 expression is induced by BR deficiency and light, and is regulated by the circadian rhythm. BPG4 deficiency causes increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and damage to photosynthetic activity under excessive high-light conditions. Our findings suggest that BPG4 acts as a chloroplast homeostasis factor by fine-tuning the expression of PhANGs, optimizing chloroplast development, and avoiding ROS generation.

MeSH terms

  • Brassinosteroids*
  • Chloroplasts*
  • Homeostasis
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • Brassinosteroids
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Transcription Factors