Testing for Helicobacter pylori in an era of antimicrobial resistance

J Clin Microbiol. 2024 Feb 14;62(2):e0073223. doi: 10.1128/jcm.00732-23. Epub 2024 Jan 9.


Antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori has reached alarming levels and is compromising traditional empiric treatment of H. pylori. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is routinely performed for infectious diseases when there is a risk of resistance and is now recommended to guide therapy for H. pylori. This mini-review overviews the current diagnostics for H. pylori with a focus on tests that enable susceptibility-guided treatment, including molecular tests performed directly on stool and endoscopically collected specimens.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; stomach biopsy; stool PCR; urea breath test.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Breath Tests
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Helicobacter Infections* / diagnosis
  • Helicobacter Infections* / drug therapy
  • Helicobacter pylori* / genetics
  • Humans


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents