A method for the determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children which involves the use of a single-plasma sample (SPS) after the injection of a radioactive indicator such as radioiodine labeled diatrizoate (Hypaque) has been developed. This is analogous to previously published SPS techniques of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in adults and children and GFR SPS techniques in adults. As a reference standard, GFR has been calculated from compartment analysis of injected radiopharmaceuticals (Sapirstein Method). Theoretical volumes of distribution were calculated at various times after injection (Vt) by dividing the total injected counts (I) by the plasma concentration (Ct) expressed in liters, determined by counting an aliquot of plasma in a well type scintillation counter. Errors of predicting GFR from the various Vt values were determined as the standard error of estimate (Sy.x) in ml/min. They were found to be relatively high early after injection and to fall to a nadir of 3.9 ml/min at 91 min. The Sy.x Vt relationship was examined in linear, quadratic, and exponential form, but the simpler linear relationship was found to yield the lowest error. Other data calculated from the compartment analysis of the reference plasma disappearance curves are presented, but at this time have apparently little clinical relevance.