During the past 12 years, 62 children with urinary stones have been treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal or flank pain (45%), recurrent or persistent pyuria (35%), and gross hematuria (21%). Twenty-two patients had associated congenital urologic anomalies. Infection-related struvite stones were most common and were found in 18 children, of whom 15 were found to have anatomic abnormalities. Eighteen of 28 children evaluated for a metabolic cause were found to have an abnormality, most frequently hypercalciuria. No predisposing factors could be found in 16 of the 62 patients. Forty-four (87%) children had upper urinary tract stones. Twelve of 15 bladder stones were in children with a neuropathic bladder and all were related to infection. Treatment was directed to the correction of anatomic and metabolic predisposing causes, as well as to removing the stones. Fifteen patients passed stones ranging in size from 2 to 6 mm. Forty-six surgical procedures were performed in 43 children. Pyelolithotomy and cystolithotomy were the most frequent procedures. There were three residual stones and five recurrences. Of the 29 operations for upper urinary stones reviewed, 17 might today be considered suitable for percutaneous nephrostolithotripsy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Possible future stone management will be discussed in light of this analysis.