Establishment of clinical pharmacy services: evidence-based information from stakeholders

Hum Resour Health. 2024 Jan 10;22(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s12960-023-00887-5.


High morbidity and mortality related to the use of drugs resulted in demand for clinical pharmacy services (CPS) globally. In developed countries, the evolution of pharmacists' role in direct patient care started in the 1960s. The participation of pharmacists in CPS has resulted in positive clinical, economic, and humanistic outcomes. In developing countries, efforts have started to ensure pharmacists are engaged in the provision of CPS. However, the efforts are hampered by poorly defined pharmacist career paths, financial constraints, and a lack of political willingness. In Tanzania, efforts started in 2008, in which CPS was introduced into the Bachelor of Pharmacy curriculum, followed by the initiation of a postgraduate program on hospital and clinical pharmacy in 2013. A regulation was released by the Tanzania Ministry of Health in 2020 to enforce pharmacists' engagement in providing CPS. In 2021, a project was launched in the country, aiming to strengthen the provision of CPS in public and faith-based hospitals by training on-job pharmacists. The project was implemented in phases, including stakeholders' engagement, baseline survey, training, and supportive supervision of the trained pharmacists. Therefore, this commentary aims to share what we experienced during project implementation, the achievements, challenges, and key lessons learned.

Publication types

  • Letter

MeSH terms

  • Curriculum
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Pharmacies*
  • Pharmacy Service, Hospital*
  • Pharmacy*