Imaging of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in the era of biological therapies

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2024 Jan 11. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000964. Online ahead of print.


Purpose of review: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the sinonasal cavities classified into two major phenotypes: CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). The diagnosis of CRS is based on clinical symptoms associated with imaging and/or nasal endoscopy findings of mucosal inflammation.

Recent findings: Recently, novel biological therapies have emerged as therapeutic options for CRSwNP. Imaging is helpful in deciding whether surgery is likely to be beneficial and in guiding surgery. It can also help demonstrate a clinical response to medical therapy. However, specific guidelines concerning the role of imaging in CRwNP are lacking.

Summary: This article provides a comprehensive and critical multidisciplinary review of the role of conventional radiology, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and characterization of CRSwNP. Since the complete characterization of nasal polyps on CT or MR images is very challenging, we provide a critical review of the best imaging methods and essential reporting elements used to assess nasal polyps.