Recording electrophysiological signals from small moving animals: electrode fixation and low torque swivel for recording a weakly electric fish in a group

J Neurosci Methods. 1987 Feb;19(2):95-104. doi: 10.1016/0165-0270(87)90024-0.


A silicone rubber ring maintains an electrode on the electric organ of a mormyrid fish. The electrode is connected with a novel swivel, which allows free motion of the wire around its axis. The principle of the rotating contact is based on magnetic contact between a steel pin (moving) and a steel ball (fixed). Using this apparatus, a single fish within a group is recorded. The general electric activity of the group is recorded by means of two sets of fixed differential electrodes. These devices may be adapted for neuroethological studies of other small animals.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Electric Fish / physiology*
  • Electric Wiring
  • Electrodes*
  • Electrophysiology / instrumentation
  • Electrophysiology / methods*