The current state of evidence for sodium and fluid restriction in heart failure

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2024 Jan-Feb:82:43-54. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2024.01.004. Epub 2024 Jan 11.


The field of heart failure has evolved in terms of the therapies that are available including pharmaceutical and device therapies. There is now substantial randomized trial data to indicate that dietary sodium restriction does not provide the reduction in clinical events with accepted heterogeneity in the clinical trial results. Dietary sodium restriction should be considered for some but not all patients and with different objectives than clinical outcomes but instead for potential quality of life benefit. In addition, fluid restriction, once the mainstay of clinical practice, has not shown to be of any additional benefit for patients in hospital or in the ambulatory care setting and therefore should be considered to be used cautiously (if at all) in clinical practice. Further developments and clinical trials are needed in this area to better identify patients who may benefit or have harm from these lower cost interventions and future research should focus on large scale, high quality, clinical trials rather than observational data to drive clinical practice.

Keywords: Dietary sodium; Fluid restriction; Heart failure.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Heart Failure* / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Quality of Life
  • Sodium
  • Sodium, Dietary*


  • Sodium
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Sodium, Dietary