Predictive factors for foot pain in the adult population

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2024 Jan 12;25(1):52. doi: 10.1186/s12891-023-07144-9.


Background: Foot pain has been associated to factors like: fat, body mass index, age increased, female gender and the presence of pathologies. Although evidence is limited. The purpose is to determine the predictive factors for foot pain in the adult population.

Methods: From January to December 2021, 457 patients were > 18 years, gave signed informed consent to take part to this cross sectional study. All completed demographic data and various questionnaires related to pain: Foot Function Index, EuroQoL-5D and Visual Analogue Scale (foot pain). Anthropometric measurements were obtained using McPoil platform and foot posture was assessed by the Foot Posture Index (FPI). To determine whether a volume change is a predictive factor for foot pain, a parameter was established: the volumetric index for footwear (VIF). Factors linked to the presence of pain, including the considered VIF variables, were analyzed through multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Among the study population, 40.7% were male and 59.3% female. The mean age of 39.06 years and a body mass index of 25.58 Kg/cm2. The logistic regression model had a classification capability of 72.4%, a sensitivity of 72.3% and a specificity of 73%, in which, the predictors considered were the variables found to have a significant association with FFI-pain > 45 points,, showed that younger women, with a higher BMI, higher values of right FPI (pronation), poorer overall perceived health and with problems in walking were more likely to experience foot pain.

Conclusion: Predictive factors for foot pain in the adult population include gender, age, Body Mass Index, FPI on the right foot, perceived health and mobility. Clinical implication, the presented measure aids physicians in assessing their patients´ foot pain likelihood.

Keywords: Factors; Foot; Pain; Predictive; Volume.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Foot Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Foot Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pain
  • Posture