Natural history and outcomes in paediatric RASopathy-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

ESC Heart Fail. 2024 Apr;11(2):923-936. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.14637. Epub 2024 Jan 13.


Aims: This study aimed to describe the natural history and predictors of all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death (SCD)/equivalent events in children with a RASopathy syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Methods and results: This is a retrospective cohort study from 14 paediatric cardiology centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. We included children <18 years with HCM and a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of a RASopathy syndrome [Noonan syndrome (NS), NS with multiple lentigines (NSML), Costello syndrome (CS), cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS), and NS with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH)]. One hundred forty-nine patients were recruited [111 (74.5%) NS, 12 (8.05%) NSML, 6 (4.03%) CS, 6 (4.03%) CFCS, 11 (7.4%) Noonan-like syndrome, and 3 (2%) NS-LAH]. NSML patients had higher left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient values [60 (36-80) mmHg, P = 0.004]. Over a median follow-up of 197.5 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 93.58-370] months, 23 patients (15.43%) died at a median age of 24.1 (IQR 5.6-175.9) months. Survival was 96.45% [95% confidence interval (CI) 91.69-98.51], 90.42% (95% CI 84.04-94.33), and 84.12% (95% CI 75.42-89.94) at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively, but this varied by RASopathy syndrome. RASopathy syndrome, symptoms at baseline, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT), and maximal left ventricular wall thickness were identified as predictors of all-cause mortality on univariate analysis, and CCF, NSVT, and LVOT gradient were predictors for SCD or equivalent event.

Conclusions: These findings highlight a distinct category of patients with Noonan-like syndrome with a milder HCM phenotype but significantly worse survival and identify potential predictors of adverse outcome in patients with RASopathy-related HCM.

Keywords: Arrhythmia; Genetics; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Inherited cardiac conditions; Mortality; Noonan; Paediatric cardiology; Predictors; RASopathy; Sudden cardiac death.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / diagnosis
  • Child
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Noonan Syndrome* / genetics
  • Retrospective Studies