Hyperkalemia is common in everyday clinical practice, and is a major risk factor for mortality. It mainly affects patients with chronic renal failure (CKD), diabetes or receiving treatment with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (iRAAS). Therapeutic management aims not only to avoid the complications of hyperkalemia, but also to avoid discontinuation of cardio- and nephroprotective treatments such as iRAAS. The use of polystyrene sulfonate, widely prescribed, is often limited by patient acceptability. Recent data have cast doubt on its safety, particularly in terms of digestive tolerance. Two new potassium exchange molecules have appeared on the market: patiromer and zirconium sulfonate. Their value in clinical practice, and their acceptability in the event of prolonged prescription, remain to be demonstrated. The combination of a thiazide diuretic or an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (iSGLT2) with iRAAS therapy in CKD, may also improve control of kalemia. At present, there are no recommendations for the positioning of the various hypokalemic treatments. The choice of these treatments must be adapted to the patient's pathologies and consider the other expected effects of these molecules.
Keywords: Hyperkalemia; Hyperkaliémie; Patiromer; Polystyrene sulfonate; Polystyrène sulfonate; Potassium; Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate; Therapeutics; Thérapeutique.
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