Phenomic Imaging

Phenomics. 2023 Nov 3;3(6):597-612. doi: 10.1007/s43657-023-00128-8. eCollection 2023 Dec.


Human phenomics is defined as the comprehensive collection of observable phenotypes and characteristics influenced by a complex interplay among factors at multiple scales. These factors include genes, epigenetics at the microscopic level, organs, microbiome at the mesoscopic level, and diet and environmental exposures at the macroscopic level. "Phenomic imaging" utilizes various imaging techniques to visualize and measure anatomical structures, biological functions, metabolic processes, and biochemical activities across different scales, both in vivo and ex vivo. Unlike conventional medical imaging focused on disease diagnosis, phenomic imaging captures both normal and abnormal traits, facilitating detailed correlations between macro- and micro-phenotypes. This approach plays a crucial role in deciphering phenomes. This review provides an overview of different phenomic imaging modalities and their applications in human phenomics. Additionally, it explores the associations between phenomic imaging and other omics disciplines, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, immunomics, and metabolomics. By integrating phenomic imaging with other omics data, such as genomics and metabolomics, a comprehensive understanding of biological systems can be achieved. This integration paves the way for the development of new therapeutic approaches and diagnostic tools.

Keywords: Genomics; Imaging; Immunomics; Metabolomics; Phenomics; Proteomics; Transcriptomics.

Publication types

  • Review