Assessment of Tenascin C levels in the serum of patients with bronchial asthma

Egypt J Immunol. 2024 Jan;31(1):20-29.

Abstract

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that affects a large proportion of the global population and is distinguished by airway hyperresponsiveness to direct and indirect stimulations. It is a multifactorial disease that is triggered by heredity and environmental causes. Tenascin C (TNC) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that promotes inflammatory cell migration from the interstitium to the airways. Stimulation of TNC is through cytokines from T helper 2 (Th2) cells, in addition, it proliferates within basement membranes of the airways in asthmatic patients. This study aimed to determine whether serum TNC can be used as a novel biomarker for asthma diagnosis and to evaluate the association between serum TNC measurement and asthma severity. This case-control study included 64 patients with mild to severe bronchial asthma, diagnosed according to GINA 2022, referred to the Allergy and Clinical Immunology outpatient clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital, and 64 normal subjects as controls. Serum TNC levels were measured by ELISA. Serum TNC levels were significantly higher among bronchial asthma patients than controls (p ˂0.001). The sensitivity of serum TNC measurement in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma was 93.75%, the specificity 60.94%, and the negative predictive value 90.7%. Besides, a significant relation was found between serum TNC levels and the severity of bronchial asthma (p=0.004), as elevated serum TNC levels were the highest among severe asthmatic patients. In conclusion, the results gained in this study revealed that serum TNC level could be proposed as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and a potential predictor of disease severity.

MeSH terms

  • Asthma* / diagnosis
  • Asthma* / genetics
  • Biomarkers
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Extracellular Matrix
  • Humans
  • Tenascin*

Substances

  • Tenascin
  • Biomarkers