Oropouche virus: A neglected global arboviral threat

Virus Res. 2024 Mar:341:199318. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2024.199318. Epub 2024 Jan 16.


The Oropouche virus is an important arthropod-borne virus in the Peribunyaviridae family that can cause febrile illnesses, and it is widely distributed in tropical regions such as Central and South America. Since the virus was first identified, a large number of related cases are reported every year. No deaths have been reported to date, however, the virus can cause systemic infections, including the nervous and blood systems, leading to serious complications. The transmission of Oropouche virus occurs through both urban and sylvatic cycles, with the anthropophilic biting midge Culicoides paraensis serving as the primary vector in urban areas. Direct human-to-human transmission of Oropouche virus has not been observed. Oropouche virus consists of three segments, and the proteins encoded by the different segments enables the virus to replicate efficiently in the host and to resist the host's immune response. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Oropouche virus sequences are geographically distinct and have closer homologies with Iquitos virus and Perdoes virus, which belong to the family Peribunyaviridae. Despite the enormous threat it poses to public health, there are currently no licensed vaccines or specific antiviral treatments for the disease it causes. Recent studies have utilised imJatobal virusmunoinformatics approaches to develop epitope-based peptide vaccines, which have laid the groundwork for the clinical use of vaccines. The present review focuses on the structure, epidemiology, immunity and phylogeny of Oropouche virus, as well as the progress of vaccine development, thereby attracting wider attention and research, particularly with regard to potential vaccine programs.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Evolutionary; Immunity; Oropouche virus; Structure; Vaccine development.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arboviruses*
  • Bunyaviridae Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Orthobunyavirus* / genetics
  • Phylogeny
  • Vaccines*


  • Vaccines

Supplementary concepts

  • Oropouche orthobunyavirus