Genetic Determinants of Selenium Availability, Selenium-Response, and Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2024 Jan 16. doi: 10.1007/s12011-023-04052-w. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Selenium is a trace element and its deficiency has been associated with the risk of PCOS, a multifactorial syndrome that affects a large number of women worldwide. Several databases and literature were searched to find out genetic variants of the genes involved in selenium uptake, metabolism, and regulation which may be significantly associated with the risk of PCOS through Se-related pathways. Genes that require selenium for their biological actions to perform were also shortlisted. A total of eighteen significantly associated genes with forty-four variants were identified as candidate variants that could play a potential role in the modulation of PCOS risk among the study population. The genetic variant distribution data was available in-house and was obtained through a GWAS study of the North India population. In silico tools were applied to understand the functional impact of these variants. Three variants namely LDLR (rs2228671), TNF (rs1041981), and SAA2 (rs2468844) are strongly associated with PCOS risk and have a functional impact on encoded protein. Certain variants of Se uptake genes such as DIO1, GPX2, TXNRD1, DIO2 and GPX3 are also significantly associated with the risk of PCOS development. "C" allele of the Se transporter gene SELENOP (rs9686343) significantly increases PCOS risk. Other potential genes require selenium for their biological actions and are involved in the inflammatory, antioxidant response, and energy homeostasis signaling pathways. Thus, genetic variants of the population may affect the Se availability in the body. Also, deficiency of Se effects may get modulated due to underlying genetic polymorphism of Se-associated genes. This information may be helpful in dosage adjustment of Se supplementation for a population in order to get maximum benefits.