Mesoscopic mapping of hemodynamic responses and neuronal activity during pharmacologically induced interictal spikes in awake and anesthetized mice

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2024 Jun;44(6):911-924. doi: 10.1177/0271678X241226742. Epub 2024 Jan 17.


Imaging hemodynamic responses to interictal spikes holds promise for presurgical epilepsy evaluations. Understanding the hemodynamic response function is crucial for accurate interpretation. Prior interictal neurovascular coupling data primarily come from anesthetized animals, impacting reliability. We simultaneously monitored calcium fluctuations in excitatory neurons, hemodynamics, and local field potentials (LFP) during bicuculline-induced interictal events in both isoflurane-anesthetized and awake mice. Isoflurane significantly affected LFP amplitude but had little impact on the amplitude and area of the calcium signal. Anesthesia also dramatically blunted the amplitude and latency of the hemodynamic response, although not its area of spread. Cerebral blood volume change provided the best spatial estimation of excitatory neuronal activity in both states. Targeted silencing of the thalamus in awake mice failed to recapitulate the impact of anesthesia on hemodynamic responses suggesting that isoflurane's interruption of the thalamocortical loop did not contribute either to the dissociation between the LFP and the calcium signal nor to the alterations in interictal neurovascular coupling. The blood volume increase associated with interictal spikes represents a promising mapping signal in both the awake and anesthetized states.

Keywords: Neurovascular coupling; epilepsy; interictal event; isoflurane; mesoscale optical imaging.

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia
  • Animals
  • Bicuculline / pharmacology
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology
  • Hemodynamics* / drug effects
  • Isoflurane* / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neurons* / drug effects
  • Neurovascular Coupling / drug effects
  • Neurovascular Coupling / physiology
  • Wakefulness* / drug effects
  • Wakefulness* / physiology